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拔牙创的正常愈合可分为五个阶段:

1.拔牙创出血和凝血块形成 拔出牙齿之后即刻,拔牙创里会出血,15-30分钟后出血停止,形成血凝块封闭创口。此血块的存在有保护创口,防止感染,促进窗口正常愈合的功能。如果血块脱落,形成不良或无血块形成,则创口愈合缓慢,出现牙槽感染,疼痛等并发症的可能性大大增加。

2.血块机化,肉芽组织形成 拔牙后数小时,牙龈组织收缩,约24小时后肉芽组织在血块内开始生长,大约第七天血块被肉芽组织所代替。

3.结缔组织和上皮组织替代肉芽组织 拔牙3.4天更成熟的结缔组织开始替代肉芽组织,至20天左右基本完成。术后5-8天开始形成新骨。同时牙槽嵴的尖锐边缘骨吸收持续进行,当拔牙窝充满骨质时牙槽嵴的高度会降低。 拔牙后3-4天,上皮自牙龈缘开始向血凝块表面生长,但在24-35天,乃至更长的时间内,上皮组织的生长仍未完成。

4.原始的纤维样骨替代结缔组织 约38天后拔牙窝的三分之二被纤维样骨质充填,三个月后才能完全形成骨组织。

5.成熟的骨组织替代不成熟骨质,牙槽突功能性改建 3-6个月后重建过程基本完成,出现正常骨结构。

以上五个阶段内实际也有很多变化是同时交织进行的。

=========我是科普的分割线===========

愈合的过程大概就是,拔牙后出血,形成凝血块,然后凝血块机化成骨,成骨的上方重新覆盖牙龈,也就是长成和原来没长牙的时候差不多的样子,高度稍低。表面看起来已经愈合的拔牙创,也要3-6个月后才能真正的愈合,进行下一步的修复治疗。

(Source: zhihu.com)

北京联通固定电话设置呼叫转移的方法

北京联通固定电话设置呼叫转移的方法:

  1. 开通呼叫转移业务(免费, 新开通需要 24 小时生效)
  2. 在本机拨打: *57*号码#

这样就完成了无条件呼叫转移. 固定电话就接不了了. 费用是和拨打一个费用的. 如果固话有套餐, 就优先消费套餐里的时长. 如果转移号码和固定电话设置了家庭套餐, 就免费.

取消的方法是在本机拨打: #57#

The latest driver on Canon’s website for OSX 10.8 will work with 10.9 Mavericks but requires editing the Distribution file inside of the SELPHY CP series Printer driver_6.2.0.1.pkg file. I was able to get it working by doing the following.

  • Download SELPHY CP series Printer driver_6.2.0.1.pkg from canon.com
  • Open the .pkg file with Flat Package Editor (FPE) which is part of the X Code auxiliary developer tools.
    • To access FPE find the Packagemaker.app inside of the Auxiliary Tools.dmg that you can download form Apple Developer (https://developer.apple.com/downloads/index.action) search for packagemaker
    • Once you find Packagemaker.app right click on it and show package contents
    • Browse to Contents > Resources > Flat Package Editor.app *launch it
  • Open the SELPHY CP series Printer driver_6.2.0.1.pkg with FPE
  • See the Distribution File? Yes, drag it to your desktop.
  • Open it with Textedit
  • Around line 11 you will see

               function installationCheck() {

                     if ( (system.compareVersions( system.version.ProductVersion, ‘10.8’ ) == -1) ||                     (system.compareVersions( system.version.ProductVersion, ‘10.9’ ) != -1) ){

  • Edit the 10.8 to be 10.9
  • Edit 10.9 to be 10.10
  • Save the file
  • Go back to FPE
  • Select the Distribution File and hit Delete
  • Drag the edited Distribution file form your desktop back into FPE
  • In FPE Save the file.
  • This now will allow you to install the driver on OSX 10.9
  • If you get a security prompt saying that you can not install because the file is unsigned then
    • Go to System Preferences > Security & Privacy > General and give it permission to install form there
  • Once you do all this go to System Preferences > Printers and click the + to add a new printer. It took about 30 seconds for the Selphy to show up but it did and installed without further issues.

You can download the edited driver pkg  file that I used to get  my Selphy CP900 to work with OSX 10.9 Mavericks at

https://www.dropbox.com/s/igdkf2hey22vj61/SELPHY%20CP%20series%20Printer%20driver_6.2.0.1.pkg

I hope this helps you out. Canon should be ashamed for not fixing this sooner. It takes 15 minutes.

在 Mavericks 下无法使用 Canon CP900 的可以看看这个. 还包含有修改好的驱动下载.

(Source: discussions.apple.com)

99percentinvisible:

This past year, fourteen cyclists died on the streets of London.

With the dangerous city roads in mind, British architect Norman Foster has unveiled Skycycle: a network of car-free bicycle paths elevated above London’s railways. 

If this concept is approved, it could actually appear in 20 years. 

(Thanks to robertsharp for tweeting us this tip!)

有点儿别样的感觉, 似乎自行车已经不再是方便的工具, 而是彻底成为了一种 “就是要…” 的工具.

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